LFS BURNHAM – his contribution on the liberation of South Africa


August 15, 2010 | By  | http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2010/08/15/lfs-burnham-%E2%80%93-his-contribution-to-the-liberation-of-south-africa/

BY HALIM MAJEED, Former Political Adviser To President Burnham

It was in Government that Mr. Burnham undertook to heighten global interest in the African cause. He is seen here (at the time Prime Minister) with Nigerian Ambassador, Chief S.O. Adebo.


His Excellency Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham was elected Prime Minister of the Republic of Guyana, formerly British Guiana, in December 1964. Following a change in the National Constitution in 1980, he was designated Executive President and Head of State.
President Burnham believed in a cooperative socialist approach to development – what is referred to as Cooperative Socialism – and, during his tenure in Government, gradually adopted a non-capitalist path to nation-building.  

The tenor of the times and, indeed, his own philosophical convictions impelled him to nationalize the commanding heights of the economy, to establish national institutions which buttressed socialist development, and to implement domestic strategies that engendered stability, equity and national dignity.
At the international level, the People’s National Congress Government under President Burnham placed special emphasis on the establishment of diplomatic and trade relationships with the world’s socialist community. At the same time, Guyana became an activist State within the Non-Aligned Movement, and championed – ardently and unapologetically – the cause of the African Liberation Movement, and indeed, the liberation of the oppressed peoples the world over. Regionally, President Burnham mobilized the leadership of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) in the direction of articulating and coordinating a Caribbean position against the continuation of imperialism, colonialism and racism in Africa.
When LFS Burnham died in 1985, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi of India observed that the Guyanese President was one of the outstanding leaders of the twentieth century.

President Burnham is of African heritage. His forebears were African slaves brutally uprooted from their homeland to serve as instruments of British imperialism on the sugar plantations of the then British Guiana.
Mr. Burnham himself was born in the dark days of colonial oppression and, therefore, understood – experientially and intellectually – exploitation, inequity and indignity. He was a brilliant son of Guyana and proceeded to study law in the United Kingdom. In his student years in London, a natural affinity emerged for African leaders and the African struggle for independence. It was the birth of his spirit of internationalism. That was to crystallize when he returned to British Guiana in 1949 and became an essential component of the political leadership that had embarked on the arduous struggle for national emancipation.
As early as in 1960, as Leader of the Opposition in the Legislative Assembly of the then British Guiana, Mr. Burnham, while attending the Constitutional Talks in Great Britain with the then Colonial Secretary, was arrested while protesting with his colleagues against the barbarous apartheid policies of South Africa. That was the beginning of a long and consistent fight against racist South Africa.
It was in Government, however, that President Burnham – more than any regional and many international leaders – undertook, with missionary zeal, to heighten global interest in the African cause. Indeed, a major thrust of Guyana’s diplomatic outreach was to support, unconditionally, the African liberation struggle in moral, material and other forms.
In every forum – the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the Non-Aligned Movement, the Commonwealth, the United Nations – President Burnham, vigorously and undeviatingly, championed the legitimate concerns of the African peoples. In this context, our diplomatic mission was established in Zambia to connect more closely with the African struggle and to give such support as was required. President Burnham subscribed to the imperishable truth that Guyana’s own freedom was diminished while our African family remained under colonial domination.

President Burnham conceptualized a grand strategy to support the African Liberation Struggle. For him, apartheid, in particular, was abhorrent in absolute terms. The inhuman incarceration of Nelson Mandela and the other great African sons and daughters, and the slaughter of ordinary African citizens, who yearned for freedom, agonized him but strengthened his resolve to do all in his power to support Africa’s freedom. He operationalized that strategy at both the domestic and global levels.
In his bold, characteristic way, he secured parliamentary approval to commit funds from Guyana’s Treasury to aid the African freedom fighters: an initial, annual disbursement of US$50,000 and, subsequently, US$100,000 was given to the African National Congress at a time when Guyana could hardly afford it. In 1981, when Guyana hosted a Forum on the Liberation of Southern Africa, President Burnham increased financial assistance to the African Liberation Movement to the amount of US$250,000.
President Burnham has consistently contended that “the liberation of Southern Africa has always been a critical theme in Guyana’s foreign policy.” In this foreign policy framework, Guyana inaugurated African Solidarity Week so as to facilitate a greater understanding of the Guyanese nation about developments in the liberation struggle of Africa. It was during Africa Solidarity Week that high ranking officials of the African liberation movement would visit Guyana and speak at various public functions on the struggle in Africa.
President Burnham launched a National Signature Campaign for the Release of Nelson Mandela, and made African Liberation his battle cry.
In this regard, he urged the national media to wage a sustained campaign to educate and inform the Guyanese public – and the wider Caribbean public by extension – about the horrors of apartheid and the unjust incarceration of Nelson Mandela and other African Freedom Fighters. As a mark of respect and honour to that indefatigable African patriot, one of Guyana’s premier roadways was named the Nelson Mandela Avenue.
In order to build and strengthen the capabilities and expertise of Southern Africa cadres, President Burnham had mechanisms put in place for their training at Guyana’s various institutions of learning so that, at the appropriate time, they would return to Africa to function in the public service of their countries.
Conscious of the impediments and danger that leaders of the African Liberation Movement encountered, President Burnham instructed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to issue Diplomatic Passports to key leaders and cadres from Southern Africa so as to facilitate their mobilization of the international support they required. For example, Mr. Theo-Ben Gurirab, former Minister of Foreign Affairs and Prime Minister of Namibia, and Mr. John Makatini, ANC Representative at the United Nations, among others, traveled on Guyana Diplomatic Passports.
In order to strengthen Guyana’s relationship with Africa at another level, President Burnham became the driving force behind the formation of the International Association of National Services Organizations (IANSO), which included a number of African nations such as Tanzania and Zambia, and led to exchange programs in a variety of disciplines.
Aware of the unequal military strengths and capabilities of Angola in relation to South Africa, and in manifest solidarity with Angola, President Burnham directed the relevant agencies and institutions to facilitate without question the re-fuelling and re-supplying of Cuban aircraft on Guyanese soil on their way to Angola so as to support Cuban and Angolan forces in their fight against the apartheid regime – an act of solidarity for which the Guyanese nation was made to pay dearly.
Not content with expressions of support from afar, President Burnham paid State Visits to a number of African nations and, in turn, invited several African Heads of State to visit Guyana – among them President Samora Machel, President Kenneth Kaunda, President Ahmed Sekou Toure, General Gowon and Sir Seretse Khama.
Above all, President Burnham hosted Mr. Oliver Tambo – in a style befitting the unyielding, untiring patriot, dignitary and leader of Africa – who was a Special Guest of Honour. In Guyana, he was treated with the protocol, courtesies and dignity normally afforded a Head of State. Mr. Tambo addressed an Extraordinary Session of the Parliament of Guyana and also spoke at a Mass Rally in the capital city of Guyana, Georgetown, winning the hearts of thousands of ordinary Guyanese.
At the international level, President Burnham played a special, significant and critical role in mobilizing international pressure that greatly assisted in the dismantling of the apartheid regime. During his tenure as Head of Government, Guyana’s officials and diplomats prosecuted his Government’s policies with great vigor. In London, Guyana’s High Commissioner between 1970 and 1975, Sir John Carter, played a crucially important role as Chairman of the Commonwealth Sanctions Committee, which helped to chart the Commonwealth’s policy on UDI in Zimbabwe and apartheid in South Africa. At that time, Africa needed a Chairman from beyond Africa. And it knew that it could rely as much on the sagacity of John Carter as on the resolute solidarity and support of President Burnham.
In London also, Guyana was a prominent Member of the Southern Africa Committee. The Commonwealth Secretary-General, Sir Shridath Ramphal, a former Foreign Minister in the Government of President Burnham, played a powerful, unremitting role in the struggle against apartheid.
At the UN General Assembly, on the occasion of its 35th Session, Guyana’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations, His Excellency Ambassador Noel Gordon Sinclair, served as Chairman of the Fourth Committee, which dealt with the issue of Decolonization. At that forum, Guyana resolutely championed the cause of the ANC and excoriated the apartheid regime.
At the United Nations also, Guyana, under the leadership of President Burnham, played an important role in the formation of the United Nations Council for Namibia. Guyana’s Sir John Carter was elected the first President of that Council. Subsequently, Mr. Rashleigh Jackson, who was later appointed Foreign Minister of Guyana, assumed those duties. When Minister Jackson returned to Guyana to take up his Ministerial appointment, Ambassador Noel Sinclair, who became the new Permanent Representative, functioned as Acting President of the Council for several years.
One of Guyana’s signal contributions in the context of international support for Namibia was its successful work to ensure that the United Nations Council be seen to be acting, on the international stage, as the Government of Namibia.
In Cuba, Guyana’s Ambassador in Havana, His Excellency Cecil Pilgrim, connected almost inseparably with the African liberation leaders who in turn became national leaders on the triumph of their revolutions. He paid special attention to the African National Congress and South Africa. Indeed, he developed a close relationship with the ANC Representative, Mr. Alex Laguma, and his wife, Blanche. Subsequently, as Guyana’s High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, Mr. Pilgrim represented the Non-Aligned Movement at the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA). Mr. Pilgrim was also a member of the Commonwealth Observer Mission for the first free elections in South Africa in 1994.
Those multitude of practical action, among others, by President Burnham and his Government led the Leaders of the Frontline States, all of which he made State Visits to, except Angola, to deem Guyana as a Frontline State.

The foregoing represents a mere sampling of President Burnham’s commitment to the struggles of Southern Africa. There were, for example, other noble, courageous acts of solidarity, which are best left unwritten at this time.
For his support to the African liberation cause, President Burnham paid a heavy price. Guyana was ostracized by the West, particularly, the United States and, among other things, aid from the multilateral financial institutions for national development was denied. But he stayed the course with his political and philosophical belief in the indivisible nature of human freedom – always asserting that Guyana could not be truly free while Southern Africa suffered callously from oppression, exploitation and indignity.
On the occasion of the 25th observance of the passing of President Burnham, I feel compelled to chronicle his contribution to the liberation to South Africa. It is a contribution that neither cynics nor foes could deny.

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  • de castro  On 12/22/2013 at 4:16 am

    Magnificent orbitory undeniably fitting.
    “His excellency Forbes Linden Sampson Burnham” may have been the way
    political leaders were addressed at the time….August 15 2010…..and
    post 2010 but in 2013 the language seems unnecessary/unfashionable.
    It is no wonder that the bravado of such a leader is stigmatised in
    the name “kabaka” …African King.
    Power corrupts ultimate power corrupts ultimately.

    Not unlike. Thatcher Burnham was prepared to sacrifice his life for
    what he believed was right and just…..another freedom fighter…..
    not unlike Che Guevera of Argentina who brought CASTRO to power
    in CUBA.
    Mandella was also a freedom fighter…..
    All the above mentioned “except” Castro are already in their afterlife….
    Yet there is one who has survived the era….
    HM QE2 Elizabeth…..Who has followed in the footsteps of her grandmother
    VICTORIA….whose statue still stands outside the Victoria Law Courts in GT
    GUYANA. Burnham did not have it removed or replaced out of respect
    for the law and the woman….he was a scholar of law and a QC (queens council)
    the highest accolade before becoming a judge…..he was too political to follow
    his legal ambitions….and should be admired for it. He was a born leader
    who was blinded in his desire to lead from the front….a freedom fighter.
    The article above is a tribute to a leader who lead by example.
    One can but admire the bravado but ask if it was a price worth paying.

    One William S plays come to mind….
    Friends Romans countrymen lend me your ears
    I have come to bury Caesar not to praise him
    The evil that men do lives after them
    The good is often interred with their bones
    So let it be with Caesar……
    In fact that should read
    The good that men do should live after them
    The evil interred with their bones

    Let sleeping dogs lie…in common people language.

    May all our born leaders RIP after their passing.

    Peace and love

    • Thinker  On 12/22/2013 at 6:10 pm

      Are you seriously mentioning Thatcher and Queen Elizabeth II in terms of personal sacrifice? And aren’t you distorting history when you say that Che brought Castro to power? Calling someone a kabaka is a stigma? I fear for those who take all you say at face value. Sooner or later they will be very embarrassed.

      • de castro  On 12/22/2013 at 8:22 pm

        Certainly not….thatcher was a politician queen was/is not.
        Thatcher was so determined…almost fanatical .in her final years ..almost godly in her decisiveness….she wished to be queen…
        et tu brutae…removed for that reason….not by the opposition but her own
        ministers…..history now rewritten….read her memoirs..
        No …not personal sacrifice …..in the queens case ….she was not “elected”
        or ” ordained” in her succession to the throne/kingdom….it was her birthright.
        Hey I am no royalist but I do think she has her part to play in society.
        which she performs most admirably over her long tenure.
        Victoria her grandmother was the longest reigning monarch
        who fell in love and married a German…Albert.
        The romanticism of royality influences society am sure……

        Royality has its role to play in societies….be it ceremonial or tourist attraction…history teaches us many had been removed …some shot some
        lost their heads…literally…for political reasons…revolutions etc etc
        Some good some bad some ugly….most powerful.

        No ….che was a freedom fighter ….castro was not….
        Castro was more his mentor…..che was not fighting for power
        he was fighting for “freedom” ….he was a trained doctor
        and would have sworn to the hypocrital oath of that office.
        So was mandella ghhandi “freedom fighters” …..not afraid to die
        for what believed was “right and just” at the time….
        Hope I have not confused in my interpretation of history.
        Bob Marley was also a “freedom fighter” but in song…
        removed stupidly by CIA operatives under instruction.
        Today snowden has “rewritten” history by his expose.
        My radical views most would find “revolutionary”
        but I am but a revolutionary of thinking….thinker…ha ha!
        CIA KGB MI5 etc have a common purpose …
        To collect/share information and control/protect us….
        from when or what my question…?..answer “ourselves”
        As radical as I can be…..
        Yes I am rewriting history….the ways I sees it.


      • de castro  On 12/22/2013 at 8:50 pm

        Kabaka was a name …”call name” similar to my college name I acquired….
        Kamptan….for the English one my mother gave me “compton”
        after the bishop who rebuilt the brickdam cathedral destroyed by fire.
        He was “catholic bishop” of GT….my mother was a devout catholic whose
        critical faculty was destroyed by her religious belief.
        Hence my “stigmata” comment/association with the name calling of
        Burnham….as the kabaka….he was after all the Presidente of Guyana.
        Highest power in the republic of Guyana…..almost godly….
        Sarcasm can be the lowest form of wit…..for which I can only apologise
        for if I offend.
        Burnham was a bully and a thug but a very educated man who received
        his indoctrination at university in UK…..in 60 s a time or great political
        enlightenment….with cold war detante….et al …
        Hope I have not offended distorted historians in their interpretations
        of history by expressing my opinion on it….it is not my intention
        to do so ….it is just another’s opinion.


  • Rosaliene Bacchus  On 12/22/2013 at 9:06 am

    There is no doubt that Guyana’s first President played an important role in ending apartheid in South Africa. Sadly, the evil he sanctioned overshadows all the good he did. I live in the hope that a time of reconciliation and healing will come to Guyana.

    • de castro  On 12/23/2013 at 9:24 am

      It is not what we do that matters most….
      More the way we do it…..
      Hitler had the right idea but went about it the wrong way…extermination in lieu of taxation
      Burnham had the right idea but also went about it the wrong way….he banne
      d most of the imports we looked forward to…..he could have also taxed them.

      Am sure many will find the comparison of Hitler with Burnham repulsive……
      I am no comparing the individuals but their actions.

      Taxation is now the WMDW (weapon of mass distribution of wealth)
      Was referred to as Marxism or Communism …..more popular/acceptable
      as socialism.
      Guess that makes me a capitalist with a conscience….ha ha!!

      Enjoy the frugality of Xmas ….it is not a “materialistic” event but a religious one.
      And I am no Christian…just a simple human full of love for sharing/caring.
      And I am more the devil than the saint.
      My acquired British sense of humour…..habit dry but sweet.

      • Thinker  On 12/23/2013 at 6:46 pm

        It is disgraceful to say that “Hitler had the right idea”. It has to come from someone who is totally ignorant of the philosophical underpinnings of Nazism. It was not about getting money from a minority group. That shows a very superficial knowledge of 20th century history.

  • Thinker  On 12/22/2013 at 10:07 am

    Not in our lifetimes, unfortunately. Perhaps if Jagan had lived 10 years longer.

    • de castro  On 12/22/2013 at 9:00 pm

      Chedi should never have gone to USA for heart surgery…..south Africa
      would have been a better choice…even Cuba which was much nearer
      home…..we cannot change history….but only fools repeat its mistakes.
      Cuba has some of the best doctors in the world today….who do not prescribe
      Monsanto drugs to their patients…..natural medicines an alternative.
      Thanks to the “stupidity” of a trade embargo by Goliath on David…ha ha
      Now there is another” scenario” for further discussion…..

  • de castro  On 12/22/2013 at 1:37 pm

    Thinker + Rosaliene

    I beg to differ….peace and reconciliation is a very long and slow process….
    Changes can happen much faster….by deselection at the ballot….
    the status quo in politricks is not carved in stone.
    With a free press changes can occur sooner than later….
    Guyana needs a powerful press yesterday not today or tomorrow.
    Our next generations are not obtaining information from the daily
    rabble …..or TV ..they are busy “on line” and on “mobiles” exchanging
    opinions/information.My grandchildren testimony of this trend.
    They are the ones who can change things but it all depends on how
    motivated they are for change. Most older folks don’t like change
    but youths of today will demand it. How they go about it the question.

    I have certainly had a great influence on my children ..and now more
    so my grandchildren hence my optimism for the future.
    Hope I am no disappointed as my expectations are not high.


  • Thinker  On 12/22/2013 at 6:15 pm

    Your grandchildren don’t live in Guyana and are not part of the racial/cultural “rivalry” that’s going on. Guyanese children continue to be influenced by the fears and suspicions of their parents.

  • de castro  On 12/22/2013 at 7:32 pm

    Indeed …so be it. Am sure what happens in Guyanese society today will also
    influence their youths who will become citizens of tomorrow…..but “fear”
    should not be a factor in their understanding. Parents and the institutions
    have their part to play in this am sure…..academia even more of an influence
    as our offspring look for answers …..in their quest for knowledge.
    An inquisitive mindset can only benefit the individual and their society as a whole.

    Hey this is deep philosophical thinking verging on the theological both
    subjects I am not qualified to discuss….I have my “ideas” on subjects but
    am open to listening to first before commenting further.Sorry it would take
    I consider myself one of the lucky ones who returned to de father/motherland
    to follow my career/ambitions..my other three children were born in Guyana
    but unfortunately my wife and mother of my children chose to return to
    her country of birth….yes with my children leaving me no option.
    A decision that was hard to swallow….no regrets !
    My children were 6 5 and 2 year olds.
    It was my destiny I suppose…..we cannot turn the clock back
    it was meant to be… so we accept and move forward.

    Lessons are learn by experiences but regrets must remain history….

    Forever the optimist
    Viv la Vida

  • Thinker  On 12/23/2013 at 4:45 am

    The Kabaka was the traditional name of the King of Buganda, which is part of Uganda. Certainly no “call name”.. It is absolutely crucial that we get certain aspects of Guyanese history right. If I didn’t know better I would be lapping up all sorts of inaccuracies.

    • de castro  On 12/23/2013 at 4:59 am

      Thanks for the correction….I picked up the “slang” kabaka in Guyana during my decade of working life in Guyana..ok..so if it was the traditional name of the king of buganda…a province of Uganda it was still the name of a king….hence the othe names of many of Forbes Linden Sampson Burnham….king Forbes another.
      My twisted British sense of humour my guess !
      Sorry brother no one is “perfect”….maybe god …
      but that is a longer debate,

  • Thinker  On 12/23/2013 at 4:52 am

    Can’t keep up with all the statements. Just give some references to the fact/theory that the CIA got rid of Bob Marley. Thanks,

    • de castro  On 12/23/2013 at 5:12 am

      On my last visit to Kingston I visited the house that bob Marley grew up in…
      my family was his neighbours…they told me there were attempts on his life
      …some of marleys songs of rebellion/freedom were “inciteful” hence
      the suggestion of the CIA as executioner…maybe so maybe not.
      It could even be “speculation” …I will leave an open mind on the issue.


  • Thinker  On 12/23/2013 at 11:23 am

    Scares the bejesus out of me the way you casually mention stuff as fact..

    • de castro  On 12/23/2013 at 7:29 pm

      Nazism is almost a religion to some…..to me it is but a belief that was OTT
      (over the top) philosophically/ideologically…..it died with Hitler….some even believe that Hitler went to live his life out in Argentina….
      If it is your intention to offend by your remarks I must admit I find your language
      distasteful….however that excused I will continue the exchanges but ask
      that you refrain from the personal “attack” ….one can disagree without the abuse.
      I am no historian or find history as interesting as others but I will read only
      the history that interest me most. We can only learn from it by not repeating
      its mistakes…..Nazism one of the many mistakes of past.
      I prefer to focus my attention on the present and future
      which will eventually become history.
      Don’t wish to go any deeper into the past so will end here.
      Thank you for reading my comments which sometimes may offend but it is never my intention….it is “an opinion” my opinion..like it or not….sorry.

  • de castro  On 12/23/2013 at 1:51 pm

    Sorry …certainly not my intention…..fear is for those who are afraid to die
    for their beliefs/convictions. At 70 if I am assassinated for my
    outspokeness so be it.! It is this fear that is being suppressed in societies
    that we should be concerned about….we are lucky that we are allowed
    this freedom of expression….internet….social media as it does afford us a bit of anominity…..as I have no political ambitions I will use my power of persuasion
    to write articles in the local rabble….if not will start my own ……yes the pen is mightierr than the sword.

    Let me wish you a merry Christian Xmas
    And happy 2014…..live for today as tomorrow is but a bonus in life…enjoy


  • gigi  On 12/24/2013 at 3:29 am

    Pity he didn’t return to SA to carry out his so called liberation like the great Mahatma Gandhi did for India. The only notoriety Burnham will get will be to have his name mentioned in the same vein as Idi Amen, Jacob Zuma, and all the other despotic rulers to rule these so-called “liberated” African countries. Countries which still remain under the boot of the colonialism disguised as “liberated.”

    Why else is there constant conflicts, famine, disease outbreaks, etc? All the infighting and man made disasters (siphoning off their water supplies causing drought, food shortages, diseases) are deliberate so that the resources can be pillaged and disproportionately traded in exchange for resources the other side has plenty of: food, medicine, and weapons so people can continue fighting and killing off each other effectively reducing the population. Raping women to breed more child soldiers and child slaves, and drugging these kids to keep them brainwashed is turning the outside world against these people/countries. People are totally disgusted and repulsed by the barbarism taking place.

    Burnham was no African liberator. Whatever marginal clout he had was from him lapping up the spilled soup from whichever bowl was leaking, and paying for the privilege too. He was an oreo with a lot of self hate. He dutifully did everything his masters told him to do and more. Yet they didn’t care for him because he proved to be exactly what they thought of him – a two timing sellout and a Animal Farm character – you know the type, “four legs good, two legs better.”

    • Thinker  On 12/24/2013 at 9:59 am

      Let us focus on the image of black Africa presented by Gigi since just about enough has been said about Burnham. First, Zuma may not be likeable but he doesn’t have the personal power to qualify as “despotic”. It is well known that the ANC considers him a liability. So this is the first indication that Gigi is not going to be exactly objective.

      Is it only African countries which are not truly “liberated”, among all those who were colonised? Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, were all carved out by the colonialists. Constant conflicts take place not only there but in Nepal, India, (Naxalites), Phillipines (Muslims), Burma (Muslims), China (Muslims), Mexico (gangs) etc. When we mention despotic rulers, must we not also include Assad, Saddam, Ghadhafi, Ayatollah Khomeini, the Sauds, Castro, Somoza, Trujillo, Mao, etc.

      Disease and famine are often products of war as we will better understand if the Syrian civil war continues much longer. The barbarism taking place is not only occurring in Africa. The religious Christian/Muslim conflict in Africa (Central African Republic, North Nigeria) is not particularly different from the slaughter that occurred in India shortly before Independence and has not be sorted out in Kashmir. Rape as a weapon of war is still common in Afghanistan and was the case in the former Yugoslavia. Caste based rape is common in India; it’s just that people don’t make much of a fuss about it (until very recently).

      Africans, frankly, should recognize that the foreign religions they follow have them in a psychological subjection to Europeans and Arabs. It is something to be overcome in order to stop wasting precious lives in the name of religion. None of that foolishness is true. Ethnic conflicts must be worked out. Sudanese Arabs despise both the Dinka and the Nuer.

      Blacks need to see the negative depictions of Africa as a challenge to overcome.

  • de castro  On 12/24/2013 at 6:12 am

    What you are writing is indeed the “history” and part of the “peace and reconciliation of tomorrow”….let’s all live in hope for a “tomorrow”
    world of peace and love of our fellow humans….where the greed and the averice
    and wars of attrition returns us to the barbarism of Roman times
    Empire seekers et al…
    Of all the “colonisers” the ones that used religion to divide and conquer
    then to unite and were the most successful…Romans. et al..
    Today we see wars as a necessary evil….is it even necessary.
    Observe our present day conflict in Syria where “power” is
    “Self destructive” …incited by the return to “cold war” detante.
    Putin et all….power corrupts ultimate power corrupts ultimately.

    Our war should be on !poverty” “want” “waste” not one of which ideology/philosophy/theology/religion/politricks/power
    the objective….
    I can go on but will get off my soap box allowing others a say
    It is by the freedom of speech that we can learn more to love than to hate.
    It is much easier to love than to hate and so much more fullfilling.
    Peace and love

  • de castro  On 12/24/2013 at 6:22 am

    Divide and conquer unite and rule

    My tablet has a mind of its own …or my finger not synchronised with my mind
    Maybe I will have to put my writings in “stone”…and not in cyber space/data base
    for posterity…ha ha “conceit” was never one of my attributes…pride however
    is….but without the “nationalistic” pride preached by the political eliteists
    dictators et al…

  • de castro  On 12/24/2013 at 2:35 pm

    As observer of protocol will await Gigi response before commenting.
    However I do agree with most of your comments….of the African
    dilema…devil you do devil you don’t.


  • Thinker  On 12/24/2013 at 4:15 pm

    Not all is gloom and doom as many would have us believe. All sorts of problems have to be dealt with but they are no different in nature than those being faced by other countries outside Africa. The Sri Lankan government has committed untold horrors against its Tamil population The world is ignoring that for the most part.

  • de castro  On 12/24/2013 at 5:18 pm

    Some of my best friends in Royal Mail were Tamil tigers….most political asylum seekers….some of the horror stories they will have to live with is best not repeated
    The mistake sri Lanka made after independence was to invite Indian military
    as “peace keepers” now indians won’t leave until the “ethnic cleansing” is
    complete…..never ask for help is a lesson in the “military” …invite others to fight
    your battle…you will loose the war.
    The Tamils were the underdogs but the odds were stacked against them.
    Ireland another example of divide and rule …more religious than political.
    And the list is endless…..
    If it is not political it is economic but most are so embedded in religion
    that it is difficult to change overnight.
    How do you eradicate a belief in the supernatural….
    The Romans adopted gods of their newly conquered nation states.
    Which was later changed to the “one” god thesis…Catholicism…
    Now we are back to several gods …KARMA.
    I will now click on your attached and view….maybe commenting after.

  • de castro  On 12/24/2013 at 5:45 pm

    A lot of reading my friend…..but at a glance it is indeed positives
    for the continent….hope it continues but would much prefer to read
    on how Africa can be united as a continent…..is there an OAS
    (organisation of African states) and if so when will they “unite”
    Africa….if it is their objective.
    We have the united states of america
    We have the united states of Europe
    We may have a united states of Latin America sooner than later hopefully
    including mexico.
    We can have a united states of Asia which can include India and China.
    even australasia.
    My dream is for a united world….one world….
    A dream that is highly improbable but not impossible…

    Politically ….possible
    Religiously …possible

    But as a whole of the three factors above ……impossible.

    I shall “carry on dreaming” its free and my freedom of thinking.

    Better to live in hope than die in despair.


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